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What were the independent (manipulated) and dependent (measured) variables? How did they measure the dependent variable(s)

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What were the independent (manipulated) and dependent (measured) variables? How did they measure the dependent variable(s)

Paper Assignment

Your assignment is to read and discuss a classic study from social psychology, and “interrogate [some of the] validities.” You will be graded on how well you understand and can apply the concepts covered (so far) in class and in Morling. Explain and apply Morling’s concepts. Spend a lot more time on Morling than on Latané and Darley.

You’ll need a copy of Latané, B., & Darley, J. M. (1968). Group inhibition and bystander intervention in emergencies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 10(3), 215-221. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/h0026570

You can find the paper from the library databases. Ask for help if you need it. The DOI won’t be much help: it will take you to the publisher, who will charge you for a copy.

Introduction.

Tell me about the study. What were Latané and Darley trying to find out? What were their hypotheses? One paragraph will do.

Basic questions.

Is their study making a frequency, associational, or causal claim?

Who were the participants? How were they recruited? What does this say about the study’s external validity?

Variables.

What were the independent (manipulated) and dependent (measured) variables? How did they measure the dependent variable(s) (self-report, observation, physiological)? Don’t forget the interview at the end!

Were the variables good measures of what Latané and Darley wanted to demonstrate? (Construct validity.) Did the study show internal validity? (See chapter 3 in Morling)

What did Latané and Darley control by having three passive confederates compared to one “real” participant?

What about the interview at the end—self report, observational, or physiological measurement? Was there any information about reliability or validity? Given how Latané and Darley used it, does reliability or validity matter?

Results.

Be very brief. I know this already; I just want to know if you understand the basics.

Latané and Darley analyzed the following:

Participant alone compared to participant with three passive confederates.

Participant alone compared to three naïve participants.

There is a longish section here explaining the authors’ math. Since they were measuring three “real” participants, any one of them might have left. The numbers had to be adjusted to reflect the actual probability of at least one of the three people leaving.

The results in the right column of page 218 says that as time goes on, the difference between “alone” and groups gets larger (see Fig 1). Their last analysis before “noticing the smoke” (left column on p. 219) is confusing; they’re arguing that there’s really no difference between the three confederates condition and three “real” participants, if we adjust for any one of the three participants leaving.

Conclusion.

Briefly! Repeat and summarize main points. Focus on Morling, not on Latané and Darley. Did the study support Latané and Darley’s hypothesis? Does the study show construct, internal, and external validities? (Pay attention to external validity—the study is really old, and consider the participants and how they were recruited.) Was the study ethical?

Details.

1. The assignment is about Morling, not Latané and Darley.

2. I require complete APA 7 student paper format. Title page, correct page numbers in a header, APA reference page, APA citations, etc. Your reference page will probably only have Latané and Darley and Morling, plus anything else you consult.

3. How long should the paper be? SHORT, but I honestly don’t know how much space you’ll need. I hope for about five pages (not counting the cover and reference pages). If you do a good job in four pages, that’s fine. If you need seven, use seven.

4. I expect 300-level college writing. I do not want a series of disconnected ideas. Make good transitions from paragraph to paragraph. Use your conclusion to summarize and tie all your thoughts together. Avoid quotes as much as possible. I want to read your thinking, not your ability to quote other people’s ideas.

5. Spelling and grammar. I expect these to be college level. I strongly recommend using the free Grammarly service to help you.

You will be graded on the following:

1. Did you understand Latané and Darley enough to briefly discuss it?

2. Do you understand and properly apply Morling’s points to the study?

3. Minimal grammar or spelling problems? Are your ideas expressed clearly?

4. Did you follow APA format correctly? This includes using headers and page breaks where necessary. Seach with Google or Duck Duck Go for instructions on how to do them. They’ll be a big help for all kinds of papers!

I will take off points for poor spelling and grammar.

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What were the independent (manipulated) and dependent (measured) variables? How did they measure the dependent variable(s)

 

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