Fundamentals of Educational Research

Fundamentals of Educational Research

ntervention/Innovation Method

Instructions: For this assignment, you will write a method paper than contains the items listed in the content below.

Content
The assignment needs to include the following areas of content.

  • Intervention – Overview (.5 point): In no more than one page, explain your proposed intervention.
  • Intervention – Literature Review (1 point): In no more than one page, discuss your literature review and how it informs your proposed intervention.
  • Intervention – Benefits (.5 point): In no more than one page, explain why you think your population will benefit from the intervention. Ensure your explanation draws on the literature you are using to support this choice of intervention.
  • Intervention Plan (2 points): In one- to two-pages, describe in chronological order how you will implement your intervention and provide a hypothetical yet practical timeframe for these steps.
  • Ethics – Philosophy (.5 point): In one- to two-paragraphs, explain how this intervention fits within your philosophy of teaching. You may have written a philosophy in EDU623 or another prior course.
  • Ethics – Social Principles (.5 point): In one- to two-paragraphs, explain how this intervention relates to your social principles as an educator.
  • Ethics – Harm (1 point): In one- to two-paragraphs, explain how the literature you reviewed leads you to believe what you are doing is an appropriate intervention.
  • Ethics – Protection (.5 point): In one- to two-paragraphs, explain your planned measures to ensure you are protecting the study participants and doing no harm.
  • Ethics – Bias (.5 point): In one- to two-paragraphs, explain your planned measures to ensure the study yields unbiased results.
  • Data Collection Procedures (1 point): In one page, revise your triangulation matrix from the Week Three Triangulation discussion adding a column that includes how and when you will collect your data. This timeline will be hypothetical and approximate. The Data Collection Procedures section can follow this example:
Research Questions Data Collection Tool Why this tool? Justify its use in your study. How does it match with what you are attempting to find and to measure? Timeframe:
How and when data will be collected.
What are students’ perceived confidence levels with learning new math concepts through digital/virtual learning forums exclusively? One
pre-
assessment Likert survey
 Allows students to rate their level of perceived confidence with learning math concepts through digital or virtual learning forums as opposed to a live teacher. Provides multiple question types to gather wider breadth of potential student concerns. Phase 1:
Given for up to first three days of study depending upon attendance in the first 15 minutes of class-computer lab.

Written Communication
The assignment needs to adhere to the following areas for written communication.

  • Page Requirement (.5 point): The assignment must be four to six pages, not including title and references pages.
  • APA Formatting (.5 point): Use APA formatting consistently throughout.
  • Syntax and Mechanics (.5 point): Display meticulous comprehension and organization of syntax and mechanics, such as spelling and grammar. Your written work should contain no errors and be very easy to understand.
  • Source Requirement (.5 point): Use no less than two scholarly sources in addition to the course textbooks, providing compelling evidence to support ideas. All sources on the reference page need to be used and cited correctly within the body of the assignment.

Review and Submit the Assignment
Review your assignment with the Grading Rubric to be sure you have achieved the distinguished levels of performance for each criterion. Next, submit the assignment to the course room for evaluation no later than day 7 of the week.

Carefully review the Grading Rubric for the criteria that will be used to evaluate your assignment.

Overview

Activity Due Date Format Grading Percent
Data Analysis Practice Day 3
(1st post)
Discussion 3
Intervention/Innovation Method Day 7 Assignment 10
 Informed Consent Form  Day 7 Assignment 10

Note: The online classroom is designed to time students out after 90 minutes of inactivity. Because of this, we strongly suggest that you compose your work in a word processing program and copy and paste it into the discussion post when you are ready to submit it.


Weekly Learning Outcomes

This week students will:

  1. Select qualitative and quantitative data analysis techniques.
  2. Analyze value of selected data analysis techniques.
  3. Evaluate impact of digital tools such as e-portfolio on current learning.
  4. Evaluate current status of action research plan and potential effectiveness of plan.
  5. Create and justify intervention plan.

Introduction: Data Analysis & Intervention Reflection

This week, you will expand your ideas for implementing an intervention or innovation and reveal your proposed plan for your study.  Moreover, will practice reviewing and coding data from a mock study provided in the discussion. Last, you will complete the required Informed Consent form including the researcher section, the verification of approval from your employer or immediate supervisor with whom you’ve been communicating with all along, and the adult participants or parent/guardians of the minor participants your intervention involves. For students enrolled in the MAED program, this form will be resubmitted during your first week of EDU675 for accountability purposes.


Required Resources

Texts

  1. Action Research: A Guide for the Teacher Researcher (5th Ed.)
    • Chapter 6: Data Analysis and Interpretation
  2. Research Design for Educators: Real-World Connections and Applications
    • Chapter 4: Preparations for Data Analysis

Supplemental Resources

  1. Gray, A.  (2013).  Week four, discussion 1: Data analysis practice scenario.  College of Education, Ashford University, Clinton, IA.
      • Flipped Math Class.  This document is available in the online class.

Recommended Resources

Articles

  1. Freeman, J., & Sugai, G. (2013). Identifying evidence-based special education interventions from single-subject researchTeaching Exceptional Children, 45(5), 6-12.  Retrieved from the EBSCOhost database
      • This study shares the importance of and techniques for using research to guide decision making in the classroom. Locating and implementing evidence-based practices (EBPs) pertaining to academic and behavioral education is the focus.
  2. Radford, M.  (2007). Action research and the challenge of complexityCambridge Journal of Education, 37(2), 263-278.  Retrieved from the EBSCOhost database
      • The author gives a holistic viewpoint of the possibilities in practitioner research, specifically pertaining to the teacher researcher. Complications versus complexities are explored.
  3. Smith, L., Davis, K., & Bhowmik, M.  (2010). Youth participatory action research groups as school counseling interventionsProfessional School Counseling, 14(2), 174-182.  Retrieved from the EBSCOhost database
      • The authors of this article suggest a framework of participatory action research (PAR) including youth and community members as a model for school counseling interventions.

Discussion
To participate in the following discussion, go to this week’s Discussion link in the left navigation.

  1. Data Analysis Practice

    Mills (2014) shares in Chapter 6, “the interpretation of qualitative data is the researcher’s attempt to find meaning, to answer the ‘So what?’ in terms of the implications of the study’s findings” (p. 133).  He adds that data analysis and interpretation is “. . . a process of digesting the contents of your qualitative data and finding related threads in it” (133).

    Analyze the middle school scenario, Flipped Math Class.  Explain your process for coding and categorizing the qualitative data.  What patterns and/or themes did you discover?  Answer the “So What” for your team of teacher-researchers based on your findings. What steps does your team need to take to address these issues before implementing the innovation of a flipped classroom?

    Pages 138-139 in Action Research: A Guide for the Teacher Researcher provide an example of coding from a transcript.

    Guided Response: Consider the analysis and interpretation of at least two of your classmates.  Did you find similar themes or patterns?  Examine their interpretation of the data.  Did they discover something you didn’t?  Is there something you think is lacking in their interpretation?  Provide specific feedback by asking a probing question and/or providing your interpretation of their analysis and next steps. *It is expected you follow-up by the last day of the week to provide a secondary response to any comments or questions your instructor may have provided. This is part of the grading criteria as a demonstration of critical thinking.

    Carefully review the Discussion Forum Grading Rubric for the criteria that will be used to evaluate this Discussion Thread.


Assignments
To complete the following assignments, go to this week’s Assignment and Assignment 2 links in the left navigation.

    1. Intervention/Innovation Method

      Instructions: For this assignment, you will write a method paper than contains the items listed in the content below.

      Content
      The assignment needs to include the following areas of content.

      • Intervention – Overview (0.5 point): In no more than one page, explain your proposed intervention.
      • Intervention – Literature Review (1 point): In no more than one page, discuss your literature review and how it informs your proposed intervention.
      • Intervention – Benefits (0.5 point): In no more than one page, explain why you think your population will benefit from the intervention. Ensure your explanation draws on the literature you are using to support this choice of intervention.
      • Intervention Plan (2 points): In one- to two-pages, describe in chronological order how you will implement your intervention and provide a hypothetical yet practical timeframe for these steps.
      • Ethics – Philosophy (0.5 point): In one- to two-paragraphs, explain how this intervention fits within your philosophy of teaching. You may have written a philosophy in EDU623 or another prior course.
      • Ethics – Social Principles (0.5 point): In one- to two-paragraphs, explain how this intervention relates to your social principles as an educator.
      • Ethics – Harm (1 point): In one- to two-paragraphs, explain how the literature you reviewed leads you to believe what you are doing is an appropriate intervention.
      • Ethics – Protection (0.5 point): In one- to two-paragraphs, explain your planned measures to ensure you are protecting the study participants and doing no harm.
      • Ethics – Bias (0.5 point): In one- to two-paragraphs, explain your planned measures to ensure the study yields unbiased results.
      • Data Collection Procedures (1 point): In one page, revise your triangulation matrix from the Week Three Triangulation discussion adding a column that includes how and when you will collect your data. This timeline will be hypothetical and approximate. The Data Collection Procedures section can follow this example:
      Research Questions Data Collection Tool Why this tool? Justify its use in your study. How does it match with what you are attempting to find and to measure? Timeframe:
      How and when data will be collected.
      What are students’ perceived confidence levels with learning new math concepts through digital/virtual learning forums exclusively? One
      pre-
      assessment Likert survey
       Allows students to rate their level of perceived confidence with learning math concepts through digital or virtual learning forums as opposed to a live teacher. Provides multiple question types to gather wider breadth of potential student concerns. Phase 1:
      Given for up to first three days of study depending upon attendance in the first 15 minutes of class-computer lab.

      Written Communication
      The assignment needs to adhere to the following areas for written communication.

      • Page Requirement (0.5 point): The assignment must be four to six pages, not including title and references pages.
      • APA Formatting (0.5 point): Use APA formatting consistently throughout.
      • Syntax and Mechanics (0.5 point): Display meticulous comprehension and organization of syntax and mechanics, such as spelling and grammar. Your written work should contain no errors and be very easy to understand.
      • Source Requirement (0.5 point): Use no less than two scholarly sources in addition to the course textbooks, providing compelling evidence to support ideas. All sources on the reference page need to be used and cited correctly within the body of the assignment.

      Review and Submit the Assignment
      Review your assignment with the Grading Rubric to be sure you have achieved the distinguished levels of performance for each criterion. Next, submit the assignment to the course room for evaluation no later than day 7 of the week.


  • Informed Consent Form

    Complete the required Informed Consent Form or Informed Consent Alternative Form and submit the form to Waypoint for grading.

    1. All students, regardless of program (MAED or MATLT) will align with one of three categories to plan and/or conduct their action research study. The only difference is that MAED students will apply their intervention in the next course: EDU675. Consider the following categories and determine which most accurately represents your current situation as well as the situation you will be in as you begin EDU675 immediately following successful completion of EDU671:
      • Are you currently employed in a classroom setting?
      • Are you currently employed in a non-classroom setting:
      • Are you currently not employed but could implement one strategy with family members or individual’s children OR change a personal practice or approach to a situation / need / problem?
    2. MAED students in all three categories must provide verification of approval by submitting the Informed Consent Form with “LIVE” signatures, it must be an actual signature not a typed in name. Those in the third category if the intervention/innovation involves the student’s own child, then the student-researcher will sign the informed consent form as both the parent and the researcher. The completed form will state their intent to participate in a single intervention or innovation lasting approximately three weeks in a specified setting with a specified group of student or adult participants.
    3. MATLT students must submit the form and clearly mark at the bottom why a signature is not required and describe their proposed study.


Carefully review the Grading Rubric for the criteria that will be used to evaluate your assignment.

6 days ago

Introduction
Welcome to Week Four!  This week, you will expand your ideas for implementing an intervention or innovation and reveal your proposed plan for your study.

Before moving any further, please take a moment to review and reflect on our learning expectations for the week.

Weekly Learning Outcomes

  1. Select qualitative and quantitative data analysis techniques.
  2. Analyze value of selected data analysis techniques
  3. Evaluate impact of digital tools such as e-portfolio on current learning
  4. Evaluate current status of action research plan and potential effectiveness of plan.

    Week Four Overview

    In Week Four, you will detail the steps involved in the intervention or innovation, including identifying roles of study team members, negotiations that need to be conducted, an approximate timeline of intervention steps, necessary resources, and an overview of data collection techniques. You will also take the time to self-reflect on the action research process and the benefit to utilizing digital tools such as the e-portfolio when collecting, sharing, and archiving artifacts demonstrating your new learning and skills related to action research.

      • Discussion 1: Your Intended Intervention/Innovation. Consider first, the written assignment for this week. Following the same outline, but with less detail at this point, share your intervention plan with the class including: research question, intervention, implementation, ethical considerations and data collection.
    • Assignment 1: Intervention/Innovation Method. Your Method Paper needs to contain the following items: explanation of intervention, intervention plan, ethical considerations, and data collection procedures.
    • Assignment 2: Submission of Informed Consent. All students, regardless of program (MAED or MATLT) will align with one of three categories to plan and/or conduct their action research study. The only difference is that MAED students will apply their intervention in the next course: EDU675.
        • MAED students must provide verification of approval by submitting the Informed Consent Form with “LIVE” signatures, it must be an actual signature not a typed in name. If the intervention/innovation involves the student’s own child, then the student-researcher will sign the informed consent form as both the parent and the researcher.  The completed form will state their intent to participate in a single intervention or innovation lasting approximately three weeks in a specified setting with a specified group of student or adult participants.
        • MATLT students must submit the form and clearly mark at the bottom why a signature is not required and describe their proposed study.
      • Submit the form to Waypoint for grading.




    Intellectual Elaboration

    Research Methodologies: Qualitative and Quantitative Research

    Research methodologies, like salt and pepper, or peanut butter and jelly, come in two distinct, recognizable, metaphorical flavors: Qualitative and Quantitative. Each comes with its own ideas and philosophies, strengths and weaknesses, proponents and detractors, heroes and knaves. The purpose of this Guidance is to outline these two types of methodologies and provide links to additional information.

    Qualitative Research

    Qualitative research emerged in the last half of the 20th century as a counterpoint to quantitative methodologies. Qualitative research is:

    • Non-Numeric—It is concerned with written description, rather numerical analysis;
    • Inductive—Research questions emerge from the collected data;
    • Social—It is concerned with people in social situations;
    • Field Research Oriented—The research is conducted on-site, in the field where the social situation is taking place;
    • Observational—Data is collected largely through observations of the actions of others;
    • Participatory—The researcher is often a participant in the events he/she is observing/recording/researching; and
    • CodedCoding is the chief analysis tool used by qualitative researchers.

    Methods used by qualitative researchers include:

    • Action Research—A “learning by doing” approach to research (O’Brien, 1998, para 3);
    • Case Studies—A focused study on a single case (individual or group) in a specific setting;
    • Ethnographies—Often conducted by participant observers;
    • Interviews—Often seeks to find the story behind a particular set of experiences.  Incidentally, interviews were at the center of my doctoral dissertation study.

    In sum, then, Qualitative research has clear value in capturing human experience onsite/in the field, recording, coding, and analyzing that experience, and reporting it in interesting ways that enhance our understanding of the human condition.

    Quantitative Research

    Quantitative research emerged during the Scientific Revolution as a way to examine, observe, and analyze natural phenomena. Quantitative research is:

    • Numeric—Data is collected in numerical form, and is analyzed using statistical means;
    • Deductive—It begins with a particular point of view (hypothesis) and sets out to prove/disprove it.
    • Classic—It mirrors the “Scientific Method.”

    Methods used by quantitative researchers include:

    • Correlations—Examines relationships between two or more phenomena—See Type 6 in linked material (p.  3) for more information;
    • Evaluations—Seeks to make judgments about the value of particular events—See Type 8 in linked material (p.  3) for more information;
    • Experiments—Common in scientific research;
    • Meta-Analysis—A research study of research studies—This seeks to draw a single set of conclusions through review and analysis of many similar research studies.  A particularly good example for education is Hattie, 2011, Visible Learning.
    • Surveys—Probably the most common quantitative research method—Used in everything from market research to political poling.

    Quantitative research analysis relies on Descriptive and Inferential statistical methods.

    In sum, then, Quantitative research has clear value in numerically and scientifically examining phenomenon that lead to ways that enhance our further understanding of the human condition.

    Conclusion

    Both general methodologies are regarded and are practiced by many excellent researchers. Your choice of methodology will depend on a variety of factors—What you aim to accomplish, your ability to write and/or ‘crunch numbers,’ the type of topic you are pursuing, your research question(s), etc.  Getting the methodology right will go a long way in helping you to craft an excellent research project.

    Have a great week!



    References

    California State University, Long Beach. (n.d.). Data collection strategies II: Qualitative research. Retrieved from http://www.csulb.edu/~msaintg/ppa696/696quali.htm

    Genzuk, M. (1999). A synthesis of ethnographic research. Retrieved from http://www-bcf.usc.edu/~genzuk/Ethnographic_Research.html

    Hattie, J. (2011). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses related to achievement. New York: Routledge

    Ismail, M. (2005). Quantitative research methodologyScribd. Retrieved from http://www.scribd.com/doc/98295/Quantitative-Research-Methodology

    Johnson, R., & Christiansen, L. (2007). Table 14.1: Strengths and weaknesses of quantitative researchUniversity of South Alabama. Retrieved from http://www.southalabama.edu/coe/bset/johnson/oh_master/Ch14/Tab14-01.pdf

    Johnson, R., & Christiansen, L. (2007.). Table 14.2: Strengths and weaknesses of qualitative researchUniversity of South Alabama. Retrieved from http://www.southalabama.edu/coe/bset/johnson/oh_master/Ch14/Tab14-02.pdf

    Neill, J. (2006, May 10). Meta-analysis research methodology. Retrieved from http://www.wilderdom.com/research/meta-analysis.html

    O’Brien, R. (1998). An overview of the methodological approach of action researchUniversity of Toronto. Retrieved from http://www.web.ca/robrien/papers/arfinal.html

    Oyang, R. (n.d.). Basic inquiry of quantitative research. Retrieved from http://ksumail.kennesaw.edu/~rouyang/ED-research/details.htm

    Proud to be Green. (2011, March 9). Using the scientific method while going green. Retrieved from http://proud2bgreen.wordpress.com/2011/03/09/year-to-year-energy-usage-comparison/

    Ryan, M. (2009). Making visible the coding process: Using qualitative data software in a post-structural studyIssues In Educational Research,19(2). Retrieved from http://www.iier.org.au/iier19/ryan.html

    Trochim, W. (2006). Descriptive statisticsResearch Methods Knowledge Base. Retrieved from http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/statdesc.php

    Trochim, W. (2006). Inferential statisticsResearch Methods Knowledge Base. Retrieved from http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/statinf.php

    Trochim, W. (2006). Survey researchResearch Methods Knowledge Base. Retrieved from http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/survey.php

    Valenzuela, D., & Shrivastava, P. (n.d.). Interview as a method for qualitative research [Presentation slides]. Retrieved from http://www.public.asu.edu/~kroel/www500/Interview%20Fri.pdf

    Writing@CSU. (n.d.). Case studiesColorado State University. Retrieved from http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/guide.cfm?guideid=60

Hello Class,

This week, you will expand your ideas for implementing an intervention or innovation and reveal your proposed plan for your study. You will detail the steps involved in the intervention or innovation including identifying roles of study team members, negotiations that need to be conducted, an approximate timeline of intervention steps, necessary resources, and an overview of data collection techniques. You will also take the time to self-reflect on the action research process and the benefit to utilizing digital tools such as the e-portfolio when collecting, sharing, and archiving artifacts demonstrating your new learning and skills related to action research.

Attachments area
Solution Preview
In an effort to make sure that school violence does not take place any more, there are two main interventions that I propose should be implemented. The first of this is that there should be creation of law that is stricter on the issue of school violence. This means that the people that are…………………………………….
ApA
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