Explain how classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and observational learning can each contribute to racial prejudice and discrimination.

Explain how classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and observational learning can each contribute to racial prejudice and discrimination.

Explain how classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and observational learning can each contribute to racial prejudice and discrimination.

Chapter 6 – Learning Theories Discussion

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The purpose of this discussion is for you to demonstrate your understanding of the material. Approach your response as though it is a mini essay with complete sentences, distinct paragraphs, and correct spelling and punctuation. Grammar and spelling matter. Online courses demand the same standard of academic communication and use of grammar as face-to-face courses.

Respond to the following prompts in a minimum of 300 words.

Explain how classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and observational learning can each contribute to racial prejudice and discrimination.

Explain the difference between negative reinforcement and punishment, and provide an example of each based on your own experiences. Be sure to identify the stimulus that is being removed or added, and the behavior that is increasing or decreasing.

Review the section on Advertising and Associative Learning. Watch the video below and see if you can find other examples of these types of advertisements on television, in magazines, or on the Internet.

Full Derek Jeter Ford commercial (Links to an external site.)

In addition, you are expected to provide a supportive and/or reflective comment to the post of one classmate. In order to receive the maximum possible 15 points, you must accurately and thoroughly answer each part of the discussion prompt using at least 300 words (including the prompt in your response is not included in the word count) and comment on the post of one of your classmates.

Chapter 7 – Theories of Intelligence Discussion

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The purpose of this discussion is for you to demonstrate your understanding of the material. Approach your response as though it is a mini essay with complete sentences, distinct paragraphs, and correct spelling and punctuation. Grammar and spelling matter. Online courses demand the same standard of academic communication and use of grammar as face-to-face courses.

Using a minimum of 300 words, respond to the following prompts:

Use the article and videos below on Stereotype Threat, as well as the various theories on intelligence to respond to the following questions:

How can the research on stereotype threat help to explain some group differences in intelligence and achievement tests?

Some researchers assert that relying solely on such tests for making hiring and college admission decisions is possibly unethical. Given some of the problems with IQ tests, do you agree? Why or why not?

APA -Stereotype Threat Widens Achievement Gap https://www.apa.org/research/action/stereotype.aspx (Links to an external site.)

Dr. Claude Steele and Stereotype Threat –Stereotype Threat: A Conversation with Claude Steele (Links to an external site.)

Women, Math and Stereotype Threat –Women, math, and stereotype threat(Links to an external site.

2. Does language influence thought or does thought influence language? Can you think of examples of how language affects cognition?

In addition, you are expected to provide a supportive and/or reflective comment to the post of one classmate. In order to receive the maximum possible 15 points, you must accurately and thoroughly answer each part of the discussion prompt using at least 300 words (including the prompt in your response is not included in the word count) and comment on the post of one of your classmates.

1. Classical conditioning means that a learning procedure in which a biologically potent stimulus, a type of reaction to certain things, is paired with a previously neutral stimulus . It also refers to the learning process that results from this pairing, through which the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a response that is usually similar to the one elicited by the potent stimulus.

And in operational conditioning, the irritant (ie Reinforcement – food) is presented after the behavior (pressing the lever) occurs, that is, the unconditioned response triggers the intensive stimulus. Moreover the behavioral response of the organism is shaped by the day after tomorrow and has the characteristics of initiative.
Observational learning is learning that occurs through observing the behavior of others. It is a form of social learning which takes various forms, based on various processes. In humans, this form of learning seems to not need reinforcement to occur, but instead, requires a social model such as a parent, sibling, friend, or teacher with surroundings. Sometimes bad example can conduct bad influences to others and which in turn may spreading the prejudice and discrimination unconsciously.

 

2. The fundamental difference between negative reinforcement and punishment is that negative reinforcement is to increase a behavior by removing/avoiding the negative consequence but the punishment is to decrease a behavior by receiving the negative consequence. Take me as an example, when I was a kid, the reason why I did the dishes after every meal is to stop my mother’s nagging every single time. On the other hand, when I was a kid (again), I once touched a hot stove. I thought I was dying, and never would do that ever again!!!

3. I was so excited after watching this video, cause as I remembered, there were lots of advertisement just like that when I was a kid. There was a product named “NaoBaiJin”, and my friends and I were saying that advertisement line all the day. It was “we will not receive any gifts at this spring festival this year, and the only gift will be accepted is NaoBaiJin.” We did not even know what that was, but the line made there was so catchy.

1.

Everyone is born with a high or low IQ, which is determined by innate conditions. But as you grow up, outside factors can also play a role. The topic of this chapter is stereotype threat. What stereotype threat is, we need to understand how it works. First it is an impression, and it is an impression that has not changed for a long time. Ask us, for example, which is smarter, black or white, and we’ll say white; ask us who is smarter, white or yellow, and we might say yellow. This is an example of a classic stereotype threat. Why this impression? That goes back a long way, because something happened that led people to the idea that, over time, the stereotype was not diminished, it was sustained, and that became the stereotype threat that we have today. So we found that stereotype threat is a very important factor in intelligence and achievement tests. As mentioned in the previous experiment, when it comes to math, people generally think that men are better at math than women, but that’s not true. It’s just a stereotype. Is that true? Do not stipulate, so we want to shield the interference of these external factors to test again, can discover the relation between actually two is not very big.

I agree with that. Intelligence doesn’t mean anything, and there are a lot of distractions on the test, like the stereotype threat that we talked about earlier, that affect the state of the person. However, it is very unscientific for universities to select students based on this, and it is not possible to judge others’ quality by one test. Human potential is not only in the examination, we should consider from many aspects.

2.

It’s a very metaphysical question, like the chicken or the egg. The question is also, everybody has everybody’s opinion, for me, I think thought affects language.
Before you speak, you have to think, and the thinking here will determine the quality of your words. For example, when someone asks you a question, you first think about it in your mind, organize your words, and finally open your mouth to speak.
So I think thought affects language. But at the same time, language also affects cognition. For example, for a psychological concept, if you can’t describe it well in language to others, then others can’t understand what you are saying, so they can’t clearly understand the concept, and thus misunderstanding will occur.

Please respond to these 2 students.

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Explain how classical conditioning operant conditioning and observational learning can each contribute to racial prejudice and discrimination.

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